Understanding the reports

Standard age score (SAS)

The standard age score is based on the underlying raw score and enables you to compare your own pupils with a larger, nationally representative sample of pupils of the same age that have taken the test prior to publication.

The national average standardised score is 100, irrespective of the difficulty of the test, and so it is easy to see whether a pupil is above or below the national average.

Stanine (ST)

Stanines (short for ‘standard nines’) are a simplification of the standard age score that divides the SAS into nine broader bands. They show how a pupil performed on a test in comparison with the national sample, with 9 being the highest score and 1 being the lowest.

The broad nature of stanines minimises the over-interpretation of small, insignificant differences among test scores. Stanines are therefore particularly useful in reporting test information to pupils and to parents, as they are relatively easy to understand and interpret.

National percentile rank (NPR)

The national percentile rank indicates the percentage of pupils in the national sample who obtain a standard age score at or below a particular score. For example, a pupil with a standard age score of 108 has a national percentile rank(NPR) of 70: he or she has performed as well as, or better than, 70 per cent of pupils of his or her age group. An NPR of 50 is average for an age group.

Raw score (RS)

The raw score is based upon the total number of correct answers obtained by the pupil and the difficulty of the items attempted. In the case of the Visual Search sub-test, the raw score is calculated from the average time taken per item.
The raw score is calculated separately for each sub-test. Raw scores can then be converted to other types of normative scores including standard age scores(SAS) and stanines (ST).
In some group and individual reports you may see an asterisk (*) next to a score. This indicates that the learner completed a significant number of questions very quickly, or for the Visual Search sub-test, submitted a significant number of incorrect answers. This suggests that the pupil may not have engaged fully with the process and therefore the results for this section and the overall dyslexia category should be treated with caution. You may wish to consider a resit in such circumstances.

The Dyslexia Index

The Dyslexia Index is an overall indicator of the extent to which a test taker’s profile of results matches that which is commonly found for people with dyslexia.
The Index is calculated by a mathematical formula using all six individual sub-test raw scores plus two other scores, ‘expected reading’ and ‘expected spelling’, which are calculated from the combined ability (Missing Pieces and Vocabulary) score. The values range from A, which signifies no evidence of a dyslexic profile, to E, which signifies evidence of a severe dyslexic profile. Most dyslexic individuals fall into category C.
Letter code Description
A No signs of dyslexia
B Few signs of dyslexia
C Mild dyslexia
D Moderate dyslexia
E Severe dyslexia


The Dyslexia Index value ‘A’ generally means that no evidence of dyslexic tendencies has been found and no further action is necessary as a consequence. However, there are some profiles yielding an ‘A’ that suggest the need for follow-up and these are noted in the individual and group reports.

Flat low profile

Pupils who produce uniformly low scores need further investigation into the nature of their difficulties, to find out if they really have general cognitive difficulties or if their current low performance stems from emotional or motivational roots.

Flat high profile

Pupils who produce uniformly high scores need highlighting in case their educational potential has not yet been recognised.

Reverse dyslexia

A few pupils may yield an anomalous ‘overachievement’ profile, in which they appear to be performing better in literacy than their ability level would indicate was likely. These cases need further investigation, to identify why their ability scores were unusually low, given their educational achievement.

Low attainment

Pupils who do not produce a dyslexic profile but nevertheless show low attainment in literacy need highlighting, as they might not be able to access an ability-appropriate curriculum without support.


Recommendations provided in the individual reports are based on the author’s wide experience of working with dyslexia. However, local procedures and resources may need to be taken into account in determining an implementation plan. The effectiveness of specialist help depends upon the programme of study fitting the individual circumstances. General prescriptions are likely to be of little use.

There are many products and services that may be effective in providing support to individuals. Individual, diagnostic assessment may be carried out using GL Assessment’s Dyslexia Portfolio and intervention planned using the Dyslexia Guidance handbook.

Visit our website https://www.gl-assessment.co.uk/products/dyslexia-screener-portfolio-and-guidance/ for further details of these products and for a more comprehensive guide to the Dyslexia Screener, including further advice on managing outcomes from the reports.