The Report Generator
How the results are displayed
All scores are saved automatically to a single database file on completion of each test. The data saved also includes the date and time the test was completed. If a test has been abandoned before completion, then no results will be saved for that test.
The Report Generator can be entered by clicking on the Report button from the Main menu. Select the appropriate student from the pull down list.
Performance of each test can be viewed in a variety of ways. Results are indicated in the Summary Table, the Data Tables, or the Graphical Profile.
The Graphical profile
The Graphical Profile (see Figure 1) automatically charts the individual student’s performance against those of the norm referenced group, which is based on the student’s age in the following bands: 11:0–11:11; 12:0–12:11; 13:0–13:11; 14:0–14:11; 15:0–15:11.
Figure 1. Graphical Profile.
The Graphical Profile can be viewed in either centile scores or z-scores (standard deviation units), with the former being the default. If bars are missing from any of the tests represented on the bar chart then the student either didn’t attempt or didn’t complete that test. The appearance of the graphical profile can be altered by clicking on various Chart features icons.
Here the student’s score is shown with reference to the population norms in centile units (sometimes referred to as ‘percentile’ scores), which range (roughly) from 1 to 99. A centile score of 63, for example, means that the students’ score lay at the point where 63% of the population scored less, and 37% scored more. A centile score of 50 indicates that the student’s score lay exactly on the median of the distribution, with half the age group scoring higher and half lower.
Standard deviation units (z–scores)
These can be viewed by clicking on the Z-Scores option. The score is shown with reference to the population norms in standard deviation units. The z-scores are converted directly from the centile scores maintaining a normal distribution. Positive z-scores lie above the mean of the distribution and negative z scores lie below it. A z-score of 0 indicates that the student’s score lies exactly on the mean (average) of the distribution. A z-score of +1.0 signifies that the student’s score was one standard deviation above the mean of the statistical population.
These charts may be of greatest interest to a trained psychologist or others familiar with working with standard deviation units, but can be used by teachers and others who wish to determine whether or not a difference between two test results is statistically significant — see Section 4.3.3). When dealing with a normal distribution, z-scores may be easily converted to standard scores which have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. The intelligence quotient (IQ) is a standard score, so the average IQ for the population is 100, and 67% of the population will have IQs falling between 85 and 115 (i.e. from –1.0 to +1.0 standard deviations from the mean). Many educational tests (e.g. tests of reading, spelling, verbal, nonverbal and quantitative ability) also use standard scores.
Tables are split into the Summary Table of results and the individual Data Tables for each test.
The Summary Table (see Figure 2) is viewed by clicking on the Summary button and will show the scores (raw scores or adaptive scores) obtained for each test completed, including centile scores, z-scores and age equivalents (for explanation of what these scores mean see Section 4.1.1). The Summary Table also shows whether any of the test results are significantly different in statistical terms from what would be expected on the basis of the student’s Reasoning test score. This is known as the ‘Discrepancy’ and is shown as a probability value (e.g. p<0.001). Negative discrepancies (marked with a minus sign on the table) indicate a significant area of weakness for the student. Positive discrepancies (marked with a plus sign on the table) indicate a significant area of strength. For further explanation of discrepancy scores, see Sections 4.3.3 and 4.3.4).
To return to the Graphical Profile, click on the Chart option button.
Figure 2. Summary Table.
Individual responses to each item are recorded and can be viewed in the Data Tables, which provide much more detailed analyses of the student’s responses. These are accessed by clicking on the grey test name button at the bottom of the bar as shown on the Graphical Profile.
For example, in order to view the Data Table for Reading, click on the grey button with the appropriate test name on the Graphical profile screen (see the illustration below).
An example Data Table for the Reading test is shown in Figure 3. The column widths may be altered by hovering the mouse pointer over the column border, waiting for the mouse pointer to change to the appropriate indicator, then clicking and dragging the column width to the desired place. To return to the Graphical Profile click on the Bar chart button.
A Data Table is available for each of the eight tests (if attempted) and can be printed out. The Data Tables include Raw Scores, which in the case of the progressive tests, represent the number of items correct in each test. In the case of the adaptive tests in the suite (i.e. Sentence Reading, Spelling, and Reasoning) the Pass Rate is equivalent to a Raw Score. The Pass Rate is a measure of the difficulty of each item, i.e. it tells you how many students in that age band attempted that item successfully. Pass Rates are expressed as a decimal: 1.0 would mean that all students in the age band passed the item correctly, 0.0 would mean that no students in the age band passed the item correctly, and 0.5 would mean that 50% of the students in the age band passed the item correctly. The most important score to note in such cases is the Adaptive Score, which represents the highest level of attainment of the student in that test (i.e. the final Pass Rate achieved).
The Data Table also shows the age equivalent score (for further information on using age equivalent scores, see Section 4.1.3). Note that if using the table of age equivalents (see Appendix, Section 9.4), Adaptive Scores rates have already been converted to percentages for convenience
Figure 3. Example Data Table for Reading test
Monitoring the testing progress of the class
It is possible to display the testing progress of all registered students in the LASS 11-15 database by clicking on the Testing progress button. This opens a Testing Progress Table (see Figure 4 below). The students’ names are shown down the table with the tests across the top. ‘Yes’ indicates that the student has completed the test and a dash indicates that the test has not been completed. To return to the previous screen click on Menu.
Figure 4. Testing Progress screen
Printing out results
Graphical profiles can be viewed and then printed out via the Print Preview screen by choosing the item Single (for one report) or Batches (for up to 8 thumbnail reports) in the Report previews panel (figure 1). Raw Data tables or Summary tables which are displayed on the Report screen can be printed out directly by clicking on the Print out icon.
Copying LASS 11-15 results to another application
LASS 11-15 Data Tables, Summary Tables and Testing Progress Tables may be copied to other applications such as word processors, spreadsheets etc. The user must first make the selection of the information they wish to copy. This is done by clicking and holding down the mouse button on the first cell of the selection. Whilst still holding down the mouse button drag the mouse pointer to the last cell of the selection which you wish to copy. Once this is done you will see the block of text is highlighted. Press the Ctrl and C keys together to copy this selection. Start the other Windows application (e.g. word processor or spreadsheet program) and go to the place where you wish to “paste” the selection. Press the Ctrl and V keys together to paste the selection.