Letter names (visual-verbal associative memory)

Subtest Level Recommendations

Letter names (visual-verbal associative memory)

Very low (Accuracy SAS <75)

Check: Check the scores on Toybox and Races to see if the student has a general associative memory difficulty or a general auditory memory difficulty. Check auditory discrimination skills (Wock) and phonological awareness (Rhymes).

Action: The student is likely to have difficulty with basic phonics (especially letter-sound association) which can lead to early discouragement and frustration. Spelling and writing are also likely to be a problem. Structured phonics work is essential with ample practice (overlearning), using a multisensory approach, building on any visual and kinaesthetic strengths – see page 97 of the CoPS manual for suitable phonics schemes. Auditory memory training is also recommended – see page 96 of the CoPS manual for suitable activities and computer software.

Below average (Accuracy SAS 76-87)

Check: Check the scores on Toybox and Races to see if the student has a general associative memory difficulty or a general auditory memory difficulty. Check auditory discrimination skills (Wock) and phonological awareness (Rhymes).

Action: The student is likely to have difficulty with basic phonics (especially letter-sound association) which can lead to early discouragement and frustration. Spelling and writing are also likely to be a problem. Structured phonics work is recommended with ample practice (overlearning), using a multisensory approach, building on any visual and kinaesthetic strengths – see page 97 of the CoPS manual for suitable phonics schemes. Auditory memory training should be helpful – see page 96 of the CoPS manual for suitable activities and computer software.

Slightly below average (Accuracy SAS 88-94)

Check: Check the scores on Toybox and Races to see if the student has a general associative memory difficulty or a general auditory memory difficulty. Check auditory discrimination skills (Wock) and phonological awareness (Rhymes).

Action: The student may have difficulty with basic phonics (especially letter-sound association) which can lead to early discouragement and frustration. Spelling and writing may also be a problem. It is suggested that visual-verbal associative memory and literacy are regularly monitored for this student. Structured phonics work may be required with ample practice (overlearning), using a multisensory approach, building on any visual and kinaesthetic strengths – see page 97 of the CoPS manual for suitable phonics schemes. Auditory memory training may also be helpful – see page 96 of the CoPS manual for suitable activities and computer software.